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句子结构和句子之间的相互转换

作者:张荣方 来源:本站原创 发布时间:2014年11月09日
 

句子结构和句子之间的相互转换

张荣芳

 

(一)教学重点

1、了解英语句子的不同分类

2、掌握各种类型的句子结构

3掌握各种句子之间相互转换的方法

(二)教学难点

1、简单句如何变为并列句或复合句。

2、并列句或复合句如何变为简单句。

(三)教学步骤

1、句子的分类

A、按结构分类

简单句

并列句

复合句  状语从句

 

主语从句

表语从句

宾语从句

同位语从句

           定语从句      

 

 

 

                      名词性从句                      

B.按功能分

 

陈述句     一般

疑问句     特殊

           选择

                 反意

祁使句

感叹句

2、简单句(五种基本句型)

I am Tom.主系表

I study hard.主谓

I like sports.主谓宾

I often give my classmates much help.主谓间宾直宾

They all call me Li Feng.主谓宾宾补

3、简单句 并列句(等)

You help him. He helps you    (and)

                                                      

They must go out. The room is dark.   (for)

                                                     

Hurry up. You will miss the train.  (or)

                                                     

4、简单句   状从句

I have time. I will help you.    (if)

                                                      

 

He was ill. He didn’t come.(because)

                                                      

注意:二个简单句合并为状语从句,必须加从属连词,构成一个主从句。从属连词when, if, where, as if, than, although, because, so that等分别引导时间,条件,地点,方式,比较,让步,原因,目的和结果9大类状语从句。

5、简单句   定语从句

The boy is 18. He is riding a bike.

                                                      

The school is beautiful. Mary works in the school.

                                                      

                                                      

注意:定语从句(先行词、关系代词\关系副词)

关系代词     Who whose whom

             Which that as

关系副词   When  where why 

简单句     名词性从句(以宾语从句为例)

“I will buy a CD”.(陈述句)(连词,   时态)

He said                  .

“will you buy a CD?”(一般疑问句)(连词,语序,时态)

He asked me                   .

③(“What will you buy?”特殊疑问句)(连词,语序,时态)

He asked me                   .

同理                          (我将买什么)

I have no idea                              (我将买什么)

The problem is                              (我将买什么)

注意:引导名词性从句连词

连接词  that if whether

连接代词   who whom whose what which

连接副词   when why how where

总结:①简单句变为并列句或复合句必须加连词

②语序:从句语序为陈述语序

③时态:主从句时态必须一致

7、复合句    简单句

1)状语从句    简单句

When you see from the hill. you can see our school.

                                                      

When the school is seen from the hill, it is beautiful.

                                                      

If time permits, we will have a picnic.

                                                      

Since there were no buses, we had to walk home.

                                                      

2)并列句     简单句

He sat there and a book was in his hand.

                                                      

He slept and the light was on.

                                                      

3)定语从句    简单句

The boy who is sitting there is Tom.

                                                      

The boy who is called Tom is 16.

                                                      

The book which belongs to Tom is new.

                                                      

4)名词性从句   简单句

It is said that he has studied in Japan.

                                                      

I don't know what I should do next.

                                                    

That Tom was late for school made Mr. Li  angry.

                                                     

注意:并列句、复合句变简单句,首先去掉连词后,将从句变为非谓语动词(主从句方语一致)或独立主格结构(主从句主语不一致)即分词短语,不定式,动名词

意义:英语写作和完成句子

练习:

1、改错

He didn't come. Because he was ill.

As was reported that 20 people died.

He has two sons, both of them are doctors.

He asked me who was it that I met today.

As time going by, we became good friends.

With time goes by, he has grown up.

2、按要求改写句子

The church which dates from 180BC is in a good state.

改简单句                                    

Because he had been criticized by his teacher, he was unhappy.

改从句为分词短语                            

It is reported that an accident happened yesterday.

改简单句                                    

3、先按要求合并下列句子,再按要求变换句型

1I didn't recognize him. He took off his sunglasses.

①用until合并                               

②改倒装句                                  

2He is clever. We all like him.

①用so……that合并                           

②改倒装句                                  

3I had hardly arrived home when the rain poured down.

改倒装句                                    

4、高考试题导练

07高考)

They sat together around the table, with           (门关着)shut

I haven't the slightest idea         (他正在说什么)talk

            (他是否出去过)doesn't make much difference.(he, abroad)

The fact                      (他失败了数次)makes him very upset (he, fail)

(08高考)

The city                (我成长的)is very hot and damp in summer. (grow)

What the rapid development of scene and technology, I can't imagine                   (我们家乡会是什么样子)in ten years. (what)

It is your efforts, not your intelligence              (决定) your success. (determine)

(09高考)

               (任何计划好了的事) is sure to change as one puts it into practice. (whatever)

Such knowledge is still useful        (当应用) to similar situations in other countries. (when)

After circling around the earth for three days, shen zhou spaceship received the command from the ground that          (它着陆) as scheduled the next day. (land)

Learning strategies, to                     (老师们认为) importance, have not yet drawn enough attention of students. (attach)

(2010高考)

The news              (房价将要下跌) has caused many people to sell their houses at lower prices. (fall)

My mother was so proud of all              (我所做的) that she rewarded me with a trip to people. (do)

                     (正如我们强调的那样) many times, “serve the people” is our first policy. (stress)

             (油漆成) red, the building stands out among the rest and looks very attractive. (paint)

           (不会用) a computer makes it more difficult for him to do his academic research. (use)

 

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