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语法探究:句 词 性 从 句

作者:周荩 来源:本站原创 发布时间:2014年11月07日
 

语法探究:句 词 性 从 句

                            汉川高中:周 荩

复合句又称主从复合句,由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成,主句为句子的主体,从句不能独立,只用作句子的一个成分,如主语、表语、宾语、介词宾语、定语、同位语、状语。从句担任哪个句子成分,这个从句就叫该成分的从句,如主语从句、表达从句等。

考点扫描:

在复合句中的作用相当于名词的从句就叫名词性从句,它包括主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句与同位语从句。如:

1Whether he will come here or not is unimportant to me.(主语从句)

2I don’t know what he means.(宾语从句)

4The teacher is satisfied with what you have done.(介词宾语从句)

5That was because he was ill.(表语从句)

6The news that he got killed in the race surprised us all.(同位语从句)

考查要点:

1、怎样判断名词性从句的类别;      2、名词性从句连接词的考查

3、同位语从句和定语从句的区别;    4、名词性从句的陈述语序;

5it充当形式主语和形式宾语;       6、引导词that

7、词尾加-ever的连词和不加-ever的连词在语义和用法上的差别:

 知识整合:

. 名词性从句必须采用陈述语序:连接词(+被修饰语)+主语+谓语+其它成分

When and where we shall have the sports meeting is a question.

二.引导名词性从句的常见连接词(关联词):

1.连接代词:who ,whom, whose ,what, which,   2.连接副词:when, where, why, how…

3.从属连词:that, whether\if, as if\though…

注意:这些连接词都起连接主从句的作用,除了that外,其它大多本身既有疑问含义,又在从句中充当各种成分,其区别从词义上是显而易见的。

4. 疑问词+ever  (1)无疑问含义          (2) 在从句中充当各种成分   

whatever = anything that (无论什么)   whoever = anyone who(无论谁)

. 名词性从句的类别:

1主语从句:在主从复合句中,起主语作用的从句,一般位于谓语之前即句首。如:

What matters most in learning English is enough practice.

主语从句如不缺任何成分,则用从属连词that来连接主从句,且不可省略。如

That the house price has been rising worries us a lot.

主语较长时,起用形式主语it,常见以下4种主语从句句型:

. It + be +形容词+ that从句,常见形容词有:necessary, clear, true, difficult, possible, likely, obvious, surprising…

It’s obvious that they badly need help.

注意:这类从句中,若形容词为necessary, important, strange, essential, natural等,主语从句要用虚拟语气,从句谓语动词为 “(should) + Verb”, 如:

It is necessary that you (should) master the computer.

. It + be +名词(词组)+ that从句:

常见名词有:a fact, a good idea, an honor, a pity, a shame, no wonder,…

It is a shame that he should have stolen a pen.

. It + be + 过去分词 + that从句:

常见过去分词有:said, reported, hoped, believed, expected, well-known, proved…

It is well-known that the earth moves around the sun.

注意:若过去分词有表示“建议”,“命令”,“要求”,“愿望”的意思,如suggested, ordered, requested 等,从句用虚拟语气,谓语动词为 “(should) + Verb”, 如:

e.g.  It is requested that children (should) behave themselves at table.

. It + 动词(词组)+ that从句:

常见动词(词组):seem, appear, happen, occur, matter, make a difference… 

It occurred to me that she might have forgotten the date.

 whatthat引导主语从句时的区别:what引导主语从句时在从句中充当句子成分,如主语、宾语、表语;而that则不充当句子成分,只起连接作用:

e.g.  What you said yesterday is right.

e.g.  That she is still alive is a fact.

2宾语从句:在从句中起宾语作用,一般位于动词或介词之后,相当于名词。如:

I can’t understand why wild rocks and high mountains have become popular for a holiday.

⑴.宾语从句需用陈述语序,时态也应与主句谓语相呼应:主句是现在时态时,从句时态根据情况而定;主句是过去时态时,从句须用与过去有关的时态;如果宾语从句叙述的是真理、客观事实或谚语,用一般现在时。如:

He told us that he had been married for 10 years.

The teacher told us that light travels faster than sound.(真理)

如果宾语从句太长,可用形式宾语it代替

常见动词:find, feel, think, make, consider…+it + a d j \ n+宾语从句,如:

I think it necessary that you should read English everyday.

②.句中形式宾语it指某种情况, 如:

I hate it when people talk with their mouths full.

⑶.当主句谓语动词是表示“命令”,“建议”,“请求”,“要求”的词,如order, command, suggest, advise, recommend, desire, demand, request, require, propose, urge, insist…, 从句谓语动词为 “(should) + Verb”, 如:

The minister proposed that every citizen (should) protect the environment.

⑷.当主句谓语动词表示不肯定或怀疑时,宾语从句用Whether/ if引导;表示有把握时用that引导:

I doubt whether/ if he can win the match. (= I’m not sure whether/ if…)

I don’t doubt that he can win the catch. (=I’m sure that…)

3表语从句:在主从复合句中起表语作用的从句,相当于名词,位于连系动词之后;

The history book is that I am looking for.

⑴.表语从句的连系动词有be, look, remain, seem…

The question is whether we can make good preparations in such a short time.

. 主语从句中的主语是reason时,表语从句用that引导而不用because,如:

The reason why I didn’t attend the meeting was that I had been ill.

⑶.引导表语从句的that不作句子成分,无翻译,只起连接作用但不可省略:

The reason why he was late for school is that he missed the early bus.

4同位语从句:常跟在抽象名词fact, idea, thought, order, suggestion, news, truth, hope, promise, belief等后,用来解释说明此名词的具体内容 ,如:

e.g.  He told me the news that he would come home from abroad soon.

⑴.同位语从句中连接词that,在从句中不作成分,只起连接作用但绝不可省略,如:That’s my suggestion that the boy should study hard.

⑵.连接词how, when, where, whether…等也可引导同位语从句

I have no idea where he comes from.

⑶.that引导同位语从句和定语从句的区别:

that 引导同位语从句是对前中心名词的内容作进一步的解释和说明,只其连接作用,不作从句成分但不可省略;that引导的定语从句是对先行词的修饰语,不涉及其具体内容,不但起连接作用,还要充当句子成分(主宾表语),作宾语或表语时,可省略:

The idea that we invited him yesterday is quite good.(同位语从句)

The ideathathe thought of is quite good.(定语从句)

四、虚拟语气“(should) + Verb”在名词性从句中的应用(见上)

五、that引导单个宾语从句时可省略;引导其他名词性从句时,一般不省略,特别是引导主语从句且位于句首时:

That the earth is round is true.

七、whetherif引导名词性从句时的区别:

⑴.引导主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句时,只用whether

Whether we will hold a party tomorrow depends on the weather.

The question is whether you can do it yourself.

The question whether he will come here himself isn’t decided yet.

⑵.动词后的宾语从句whetherif可互换,但如果和or not连用,则用whether

I don’t know whether or not he can stay here longer.

⑶.介词后的宾语从句只能用whether引导: I’m not interested in whether he is rich.

⑷.与不定式连用,构成whether + to do:   She hasn’t decided whether to go abroad.

八、注意what/ whatever; who/ whoever; which/ whichever的区别,试比较下列句子:

1. Whoever (Anyone who) will go to the concert signs your name here.

2 Who will go to the concert isn’t known. = It’s unknown who will go to the concert.

3.He won’t believe whateveranything thatshe says. = No matter what she says, He won’t believe her.

 

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